Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål, 1775)
Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål, 1775)
Genus: , ,

Scientific Name: Lethrinus nebulosus

English Name: Spangled emperor

Creole Name: Kaptenn rouz

French Name: Empereur Saint Pierre

IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC)


Dorsal spines: 10; Dorsal rays: 9; Anal spines: 3; Anal rays: 8.

Body moderately deep. Snout moderately long. Posterior nostril a longitudinal opening, closer to orbit than anterior nostril. Lateral teeth in jaws rounded with points 
or molars. Cheeks without scales. Body colour is yellowish to bronze, lighter ventrally. The centre of many scales has a white or light blue spot often giving the 
impression of faint longitudinal striping. Three blue streaks or series of blue spots radiating forward and ventrally from eye. Fins whitish or yellowish, the pelvic 
dusky, dorsal fin with reddish margin.


Maturity: Lm 39.4 cm TL. Range 41 - ? cm. Max length: 87 cm TL. Commonly 20 – 50 cm TL.

Habitat and Ecology:

Inhabits coral reefs, coralline lagoons, seagrass beds, mangrove swamps, flat sand bottoms, and coastal rock areas (depth 10-75 m). Adults solitary or in small schools. 
Juveniles form large schools in shallow, sheltered sandy areas. Feeds primarily on echinoderms, molluscs and crustaceans and to a lesser extent on polychaetes and fish. 
Forms spawning aggregations
Grandcourt et al. (2006, 2010) found the species to spawn in the southern Arabian Gulf between April to May and mean size for sexual maturity to be 27.6cm FL for 
females and 28.6 cm (FL) for males.

Fishery Status:

This species is not protected or subject to fishery regulations. It is caught in the hand line fishery, where it is a regular and occasionally abundant component of the catch.





Bray, D.J.  Lethrinus nebulosus in Fishes of Australia, http://fishesofaustralia.net.au/home/species/2754 (12/05/19).
Carpenter, K.E. & Allen, G.R. (1989). FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9 Emperor Fishes and Large-eye Breams of the World (Family Lethrinidae). An annotated and Illustrated 
Catalogue of Lethrinid Species Known to Date. UNFAO Rome. ISBN 92-5-102889-3
Carpenter, K.E. et al. (2016). Lethrinus nebulosus. The IUCN Red List of 2016: http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T16720181A16722360.en. (12/05/19).
Froese, R. & D. Pauly. (Eds.) (2019). FishBase. https://www.fishbase.de/summary/1846 (12/05/19).
Grandcourt, E.M. et al. (2006). Biology and assessment of the painted sweetlips (Diagramma pictum (Thunberg, 1792)) and the spangled emperor (Lethrinus nebulosus (Forsskål, 1775)) in the southern Arabian Gulf. Fisheries Bulletin 104: 75-88.
Grandcourt, E.M. et al (2010). Reproductive biology and implications for management of the spangled emperor Lethrinus nebulosus in the southern Arabian Gulf. Journal of Fish Biology: 1-19.
Nevill, J. (2013). A Species Identification Guide for Commonly Caught Fish in the Seychelles Near-Shore Artisanal Fishery. GOS/UNDP/GEF.


Nevill, J.E.G. (2019). Lethrinus nebulosus, Spangled emperor. Seychelles Seatizens. www.seatizens.sc. https://seatizens.sc/species/lethrinus-nebulosus-forsskal-1775/  (edited 27/09/21).

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