Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes, 1830)
Gymnocranius grandoculis (Valenciennes, 1830)

Genus: ,

Scientific Name: Gymnocranius grandoculis

English Name: Blue-lined large-eye bream

Creole Name: Kaptenn blan

French Name: Empereur tatoué

IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC)


Dorsal spines: 3; Dorsal rays: 25-27; Anal rays: 24-25.

Greyish to greenish brown dorsally, with small pale spots. Whitish ventrally with yellow spots that can coalesce to form a reticulum particularly posteriorly.  3 large 
oval white spots along the back and a small one dorsally on caudal peduncle; a broad white streak often on side of body posterior to upper end of gill opening. White 
blotches and mid-lateral stripe can disappear with growth.  An oblique groove before the eye; large bony scales behind gill opening. Caudal peduncle depressed, slender 
and tapering. Yellow bands on dorsal and anal fins. Caudal fin, yellow with white bars and stripes pattern and diffuse black margin, double emarginate, lobes longer 
with growth.


Maturity: Lm unknown. Range unknown. Max Length: 60cm TL

Habitat and Ecology:

Reef associated. Inhabits mud and silt sand bottoms (depth 7-350m), usually 7-100m depth on sand, sponge, and weed bottoms. Feeds on benthic animals, including crabs, 
molluscs and sea urchins. Juveniles in sheltered coastal bays and estuaries.

Fishery Status:

This species is not protected or subject to fishery regulations. It is caught in both the fish trap and hand line fisheries and is, along with Sufflamen fraenatum, 
the most commonly caught triggerfish in the artisanal fishery.




Abalistes stellaris is a synonym for this species.


Bray, D.J. (2018).  Abalistes stellatus in Fishes of Australia, (30/10/18). 
Froese, R. & D. Pauly. Eds. (2018). FishBase  (30/10/18)
Matsuura, K. (2015). Taxonomy and systematics of tetraodontiform fishes: a review focusing primarily on progress in the period from 1980 to 2014. Ichthyol Res (2015) 
62:72–113 DOI 10.1007/s10228-014-0444-5  
Matsuura, K. & Motomura, H. (2015). Abalistes stellatus. The IUCN Red List 2015: e.T193587A56996805. (18/06/22). .
Matsuura K, Yoshino T (2004). A new triggerfish of the genus Abalistes (Tetraodontiformes: Balistidae) from the western Pacific. Rec Aust Mus 56:189-194
Smith, M & Heemstra, P Eds. (1999). Smiths’ Sea Fishes Edition 6. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 10.1007/978-3-642-82858-4


Nevill, J.E.G. & Mason-Parker, C. (2019). Abalistes stellatus, Starry triggerfish. Seychelles Seatizens.  (updated 18/06/22).

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Dorsal spines: 10; Dorsal rays: 10; Anal spines: 3; Anal rays: 10.

Body oblong. Silver coloured with thin brown edge to scales. Forehead profile moderately steep; large adults developing a bony ridge on nape and bony shelf over front part 
of eyes. Anteriodorsal half of head often brown. Eyes relatively large. Distinctive horizontal wavy blue lines on snout and cheek. Mouth relatively small. 2 or 3 pairs of 
slender canines at front of each jaw, outer canine on each side of lower jaw is usually enlarged. Other teeth villiform, becoming conical on lateral sections of jaws. 
Fins yellow or orange. Pectoral fins with a narrow brown bar across base. Caudal fin only moderately forked with pointed tips and may be dusky orange or yellow. 
Juveniles under about 25 cm standard length often with five or six irregular dark bars on side and dark bar below eye.


Maturity: Lm unknown. Range unknown. Max Length: 80.0 cm TL. Common Length: 50cm TL.

Habitat and Ecology:

Inhabits offshore reefs, sandy, silty substrates and offshore rocky bottoms (depth 20-170m, normally 50-100m). Juveniles inshore on muddy substrates. Solitary or in 
small groups. Feeds on benthic crustaceans and small fish.

In Seychelles the species also has a penchant for molluscs. The photo below shows the stomach contents of just two specimens at Victoria market (21/10/21). 


Fishery Status:

This species is not protected or subject to fishery regulations. It is caught in the hand line fishery and juveniles in the trap fishery. It is a relatively common 
component of the catch and on occasion in large numbers.


Carpenter, K.E. & Allen, G.R. (1989). FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9 Emperor Fishes and Large-eye Breams of the World (Family Lethrinidae). An annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Lethrinid Species Known to Date. UNFAO Rome. ISBN 92-5-102889-3
Carpenter, K.E. et al (2016). Gymnocranius grandoculis. The IUCN Red List 2016: e.T16719605A16722290. (02/04/19).
Froese, R. & D. Pauly. Eds. (2019). FishBase. (02/04/19).
Heemstra P & Heemstra, E. (2004). Coastal Fishes of Southern Africa. NISC SAIAB. ISBN: 1-920033-01-7.
Nevill, J. (2013). A Species Identification Guide for Commonly Caught Fish in the Seychelles Near-Shore Artisanal Fishery. GOS/UNDP/GEF.


Nevill, J.E.G. (2019). Gymnocranius grandoculis, Blue-lined large-eye bream. Seychelles Seatizens. (Updated 26/10/21).    

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