Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes, 1830)
Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes, 1830)
Genus: , ,

Scientific Name: Epinephelus miliaris

English Name: Netfin grouper

Creole Name:

French Name: Mérou abeille

IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC)


Dorsal spines: 11; Dorsal rays: 16-17; Anal spines: 3; Anal rays: 8.

Dorsal head profile with a slight concavity at eyes. Diameter of posterior nostrils about twice that of anterior nostrils. Maxilla reaches vertical at rear edge of eye or 
thereabouts. Midlateral part of lower jaw with 2 to 4 rows of teeth. Upper edge of operculum straight. Dorsal interspinous membranes distinctly incised. Caudal fin rounded. 
Lateral body scales distinctly ctenoid.

Colour. Head and body pale, covered with small close set polygonal dark brown, reddish brown or yellowish brown spots. The pale ground colour forming a reticulated pattern. 
The spots form 5 broad oblique bars, one on the nape, three on the body and one on the peduncle. The soft ray portion of fins bear much larger and darker polygonal brown 
spots. The spinous dorsal fin bears smaller lighter polygonal spots, though still much larger than on the rest of the body. The dorsal, anal and caudal fins with a narrow 
cream-yellow margin.


Maturity: Lm unknown. Range unknown. Max Length: 53 cm TL. 

Habitat and Ecology:

Found in a variety of habitats (depth 1-200 m). Juveniles have been recorded in mud bottoms, seagrass beds, mangrove swamps and from coral reefs in depths of 1 to 16 m. 
Adults in coral reefs at depths of 18 to 200 m. Stomach contents reported to include juvenile clappid crab, a stomatopod, and a gastropod. Solitary. 

In Seychelles this species is associated with deep water fishing operations off the drop-off. 

Fishery Status:

This species is not protected or subject to fishery regulations. It is caught in the hand line fishery, but is a very rare component of the catch. 





Craig, M.T. et al. (2011). Groupers of the World - a field and market guide. NISC (Pty) Ltd, South Africa. ISBN: 978-1-920033-11-8
Froese, R. & D. Pauly. (Eds.) (2019). FishBase. https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Epinephelus-miliaris.html (13/06/19).
Heemstra, P.C. & J.E. Randall (1993). FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated 
catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p.
Sadovy, Y. (2018). Epinephelus miliaris. The IUCN Red List 2018: http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T132756A100552021.en. (13/06/19).


Nevill, J.E.G. (2019). Epinephelus miliaris, Netfin grouper. Seychelles Seatizens. www.seatizens.sc. https://seatizens.sc/species/epinephelus-miliaris-valenciennes-1830/  (revised 31/07/22)

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